Week 12: Pinar and Course Reflections

Over the course we have discussed many articles and have studied William Pinar’s (2019) What is Curriculum Theory. Pinar has shared with me the question of “What knowledge is of most worth?” (p. 21). The material covered within our course has challenged the question of what knowledge is of most worth.  With this question in mind, I reflect on the key ideas that Pinar and others share in our course, especially around economics, politics, and citizenship.

One of the book’s central themes is how education is becoming structured like a business.  I reflect on the amount of money that school divisions spend on software to improve student data. Through standardized assessments, corporations are profiting off education and privileging often western worldviews. The data movement that we are witnessing in education limits the students and demeaning to the educators forced to administer them.  The standardized programs that school divisions pay thousands of dollars for begin to stifle student creativity and critical thinking; it begins to question educators’ worth. Often data can be harvested by students inputting data into a computer without a teacher’s support.  Not to mention, the technology limits the attention of other vital needs of the classroom (dare I say, class size).

Pinar challenges the content and the politics of the curriculum of education.  Pinar focuses on the idea and importance of autobiography and self-reflection for educators for fundamental change to occur.  As Pinar states, “Inflected by race, gender, and class, submerged in the historical moment and the politics of the day, we teachers keep studying so we may understand and exceed each of these” (p. 41). The course’s teachings focused on learning about the other’s experiences and our responsibility to listen, self-reflect, and teach about the other. As I reflect on Pinar’s curriculum question, “What knowledge is most worth?” (p. 21) I cannot think about the recent social studies curriculum announcement from Alberta. In an opinion article by the Edmonton Journal written by numerous social studies education professors across the country, The K-6 curriculum draft highlights the lack of recognition to Indigenous worldviews in the story of Canada. When Canada’s colonial history is discussed, it is discussed in terms of the past and how it has no bearing on the present or the future.  These teaching will continue to perpetuate those labelled as other, and the legacy of colonialism will continue to thrive. 

Much of the course focuses on educating our students to be good citizens, specifically focuses around the Civic Organizing Framework goals of active citizenship and Tupper’s (2011) Treaty Education for Ethically Engaged Citizenship and other articles more broadly.  Although we did not study Joel Westheimer’s work on citizenship, I like his citizenship model. Westheimer proposes three types of citizenship, personally responsible citizens, participatory citizens, and justice-orientated citizens. 

I would hope that education aims to create thoughtful democratic citizens who, at the bare minimum, exhibit characteristics in the category of personally responsible citizens.  However, for fundamental change to occur, we need to give students the knowledge, the tools, and the skills to be critical thinkers. We need to move towards teaching our students to become a justice-orientated citizen as being a personally responsible citizen, or a participatory citizen allows us to be complicit, or as Tuck and Yang (2012) describe as settler moves to innocence.  This highlights the importance of empowering students to think critically, challenge ideas, and our job as educators to model to students to reflect on themselves, their histories, and their stories.

Week 11: People of the Seventh Fire

This week one of the assigned readings was a chapter from Robin Kimmerer’s (2013) book Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous wisdoms, scientific knowledge, and the teaching of plants. The chapter was Shkitagen: People of the Seventh Fire. As I read the chapter, I reflected on my experience with fire. The manner that Kimmerer expresses respect for the animate and inanimate beings around her is inspiring.  The quote, “with the right materials carefully assembled and respect for the ways of air and wood, you could always have a fire” (p. 361). I reflect on this quote as someone who loves the outdoors and camping.  The struggles that I have gone through to start campfires made me reflect on the art of building and respecting the materials needed for the fire.

Kimmerer shares the worldview of fire of having two sides. This includes fire as a force of creation and a force of destruction.  As humans, we need to show respect for both of these sides.  I think about my trip to Lac La Ronge last summer, witnessing portions of the forest affected by forest fires in the past decade.  I remember watching the forests burn on the news and the media showing the aftermath.   Often we do not realize that this is how many of our forests renew themselves.  Kimmerer (2013) shared how Indigenous peoples used to set fires that were small and purposeful to take care of the land. She shared that blueberries and birch trees would grow up after a fire. Indigenous peoples used fire to be stewards of the land. 

Kimmerer shared the Anishinaabe Seventh Fire Prophecy. This prophecy refers to the places we have lived and the events and teachings around them (p. 365). 

  • The First Fire – Anishinaabe people were living in the dawn lands of the Atlantic.  Spiritual teachings told them to move west.
  • The Second Fire – When the Anishinaabe made camp on the shores of Lake Huron. 
  • The Third Fire – “Where the food grows on water,” established their homeland harvesting wild rice.
  • The Fourth Fire – The history of when the setters can to the land.
  • The Fifth Fire – The destruction and assimilation of Indigenous people and culture.
  • The Sixth Fire – “The cup of life would almost become the cup of grief.” However, the spiritual lives would keep Indigenous peoples strong.
  • The Seventh Fire – The people are to turn around and retrace the steps of those who brought us here.

The seventh fire emphasizes our responsibility to recover the languages and sacred teachings and rekindle the sacred fire’s flames.  As Kimmerer states, fire can be used to ignite growth and rebirth. The seventh fire is the beginning of the rebirth of a nation. 

Week 10: Elder Teachings About the Natural Curriculum and Treaty Education for Engaged Citizenship

This past week we had the privilege of listening and reflecting on the knowledge shared with us from Elder Alma Poitras.  Elder Alma shared with us about the natural curriculum.  What resonated with me is the connection to the land in the teachings of the natural curriculum.  Elder Alma discussed learning from the animals, including the beavers’ actions and the ants, to determine the weather.  I learned that ants cover their anthills when it is going to rain.  She shared the importance of learning from our senses.  Elder Alma shared teachings of the moons and how each moon of the year has a name. These teachings remind me of a book purchased for all our schools to share these teachings called When the Trees Crackle with Cold: A Cree Calendar – Pisimwasinahikan by Bernice Johnson-Laxdal. This book highlights the moon calendar of the northern Cree and is written in English and northern Plains Cree y-dialect.  As I reflect on this shared knowledge, it reminded me of the importance of including multiple perspectives from both Indigenous ways of knowing and western ways of knowing and teaching these perspectives as equal. 

I asked Elder Alma the question, “What role can settlers play in learning or teaching Indigenous languages, and is it appropriate?”. Alma shared with us that historically there were settlers that learned Cree to be translators and negotiators. She also shared that she believes that it is important that non-Indigenous people can learn Cree and not to be narrow-minded.  She said that there is too much English. We need to be more visible with Indigenous languages because language is the root of identity, to who we are. This knowledge about language reminded me of a previous opportunity of hearing from Linda and Keith Goulet, who shared that it is crucial to provide Indigenous language opportunities here.  This is because this is the place where we can get Indigenous languages to thrive and survive.  

Within the article, Treaty Education for Ethically Engaged Citizenship: Settler Identities, historical consciousness, and the need for reconciliation, Tupper (2012) emphasizes the importance of Treaty Education to help all students and their role as Canadian citizens and relationships with one another. Tupper highlights the importance of learning the history and the relationships with First Nations peoples of the past to broaden our understandings of social reality and engage differently as citizens of Canada (p. 146). This knowledge is essential because it contributes to our historical consciousness and their roles and responsibilities regarding relationships with Indigenous peoples. Part of this understanding is doing the often uncomfortable work of understanding the significance of being a treaty person, but not dwelling in the past, but acknowledging the past and how that informs how we move forward in relationship with Indigenous peoples.

Week 9: Silencing Aboriginal Content Through Multiculturalism

This week I am dedicating an entire blog post to Verna St. Denis’s (2011) article Silencing Aboriginal Curricular Content and Perspectives Through Multiculturalism: ‘There are other children here.’  The article focuses on the use of multiculturalism to limit the incorporation of Indigenous content and ways of knowing in schools (p. 207).  This provides an opportunity for educators to cop-out of the important work that needs to be done.

Multiculturalism fails to address Indigenous sovereignty and the on-going land issue.  The failure to address these issues distracts from the goal of reconciliation and redress of Indigenous rights and continues to dilute the true meaning of decolonization and reconciliation. This is shown, as St. Denis states, “multiculturalism permits a form of participation on the part of those designated as ‘cultural others’ that is limited to the decorative and includes ‘leisure, entertainment, food, and song and dance.’ (St. Denis, 2011, p. 308).  This can be highlighted in Regina festivals such as Mosiac: A Festival of Cultures highlighting entertainment, food, song and dance. Festivals such as Mosiac do not address the real issues. Indigenous peoples face, further allowing us to be complicit and avoid the truth issues around Indigenous issues. Multiculturalism ultimately provides a harmonious view of the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

Indigenous people insist that there needs to be a strong understanding of the historical relationships to understand Indigenous sovereignty (St. Denis, 2011). The colonial practice of multiculturalism refocuses on a western lens, refusing to understand or recognize Indigenous history.  The notion of multiculturalism places settlers in a place of innocence. Settlers appear to be innocent because of multiculturalism’s fluffy success stories and multicultural practices in Canada. Settler Canadians (racialized or non-racialized) become complicit in the on-going land theft and colonial domination of Indigenous people in how we occupy the lands.

Within the Education System

St. Denis repeatedly states that the education system is a microcosm of the political and national levels regarding Indigenous people’s claims to sovereignty and land issues. Showcased in Saskatchewan, there is a focus on Treaty Education and discussion on Indigenous People’s rights.  This mandated curriculum is not held accountable in many school divisions, as teachers are not required to assess the Treaty Education outcomes in the same way as other outcomes. Often in education, we see surface-level attempts in including Indigenous content. As St. Denis states, Aboriginal culture and history must go beyond cultural artifacts: ‘We need perspective, not just beads and feathers'” (St. Denis, 2011, 314). These attempts at education may be sincere, fail to address the larger issues needed for reconciliation and decolonization. The education system needs to address and learn Indigenous content and ways of knowing and challenging western ideologies.  Education through a lens of multiculturalism is not sufficient.

Week 8: Scope of Moral Consideration and Ethical Space

This past week I have had some time to reflect on my personal scope of moral considerations and moral extensionism. Cunningham & Cunningham (2017) state, “Extending moral value to others is known as moral extensionism.” Furthermore, they define moral value as the idea of worth, as well as responsibility. I see have I have granted moral value to many parts of my life; I value myself, my family, friends, colleagues, students, and humanity as a whole. However, it was due to COVID-19 that allowed me to experience a lot of time outdoors within Saskatchewan; I began to appreciate nature, including animals, plants, and the greater world.

This concept reminds me of the lecture by Robin Kimmerer, Learning the Grammar of Animacy: subject and object. I found myself interested in nature, interested in learning about the plants out on hikes and respecting nature. Interested in the animals that I have encountered, on hikes, on drives, or kayaking on the water. I believe Kimmerer highlights that if we change our language about how we interact with plants and the inanimate world, we can respect it.

I believe my scope of moral consideration has been broadened by growing and caring for a garden. This has allowed me to escape the busyness of the everyday world, provides a responsibility that I enjoy, and provides a sustainable way to eat healthier. However, I believe moral extensionism goes deeper than caring for the plants. I must care for the earth that my garden is planted, ensuring that there are nutrients for my food to grow, learning to rotate my crops to ensure that the garden can be used to its full potential the following season.

I believe that my scope of moral consideration has shifted. My job as an instructional technology coach thrives on the relationships and respect that I make with other educators and students. I think specifically of my time teaching in Ogema, Saskatchewan, where I had the privilege to teach and learn with a fairly large Filipino community. This community was able to show me aspects of their vibrant culture that continues to thrive in a small rural Saskatchewan community. These rich experiences highlighted a worldview that I would not have received if I was teaching elsewhere. As an educator, my moral consideration is considered in my practice through diverse teaching experiences. Such as, having a diverse representation in my classroom library. Ensuring a diverse set of worldviews across subject areas. For example, my current project on learning about the treaties ensures that students understand treaties from both the First Nations and European worldviews. However, I need to be more inviting to these communities to join in on the learning experiences and share their learning experiences in partnership.

Ethical Space of Engagement

Willie Ermine’s (2007) The Ethical Space of Engagement highlights the importance of moral extensionism to others’ worldviews. Ethical space of engagement requires us to find space between the worldviews and engage in dialogue and discussion. Ermine highlights the need to develop rules of engagement between our human communities because of a history of failed attempts of meaningful interactions between Indigenous peoples and western people. The limitations of a society that has the invisible structures of colonialism and white supremacy at its core make it difficult for our society to truly engage with humanity within its scope of moral consideration. As a society, we need to move past the Indigenous gaze, develop relationships and community, and develop space and dialogue. Therefore, I believe this highlights the importance of education, specifically anti-oppressive education, as a tool for reconciliation.

Week 7 Reflection: Decolonization is Not a Metaphor

This week I really focused my attention on the article by Tuck and Yang Decolonization is Not a Metaphor (2012). This article I have seen referenced numerous times in many of the readings I have done for other classes. However, I believe that this is such an important topic and work that settlers need to understand, thus I find it important to discuss some main takeaways from the article.

Take-Away #1: Decolonization must involve the repatriation of land

Tuck and Yang (2012) argue that the use of decolonization as a metaphor allows settlers to reconcile their guilt. By using decolonization as a metaphor does not address the elephant in the room, land and land issues. I think of the many times that I have heard the word “Decolonization” or have used it myself as a buzzword, truly not understanding the meaning behind the word. I think about how we have used the term “Decolonizing our schools” or “Decolonizing our libraries” and not really taking into account that these are easy ways to interpret decolonization. Tuck and Yang, state that these are “empty signifiers” to be filled by any track towards liberation.

Take Away #2: “I am one of the good ones”

Although the saying “I am one of the good ones”, was not stated by Tuck and Yang (2012). The notion of the ways that settlers try to avoid feeling uncomfortable is the same. Shared is the idea of settler nativism, which focuses on the long-lost Indigenous relative (Usually a distant grandma) as an excuse of trying to identify as Indigenous and not take responsibility to fix the wrongdoing of settler ancestors. Furthermore, the idea of settler adoption fantasies highlights white centring and the acceptance of a non-Indigenous person allows for the perception of innocence. One recent example I can think of is the adoption of Justin Trudeau honoured by the Tsuut’ina First Nation near Calgary, Alberta. The symbolic gesture of presenting Trudeau with a headdress is nothing more than a symbolic gesture. Four years have passed and we still have numerous land issues, water issues, and continue to perpetuate issues of colonialism.

Take Away #3: Critical Consciousness is not Enough

I have recently looked into Paulo Freire, and his idea of conscientization, or becoming critically conscious. However, again, becoming aware of our own identities is not enough when it comes to decolonization. We must address the land issue. Tuck and Yang (2012) state, “the experience of teaching and learning to be critical of settler colonialism can be so powerful it can feel like it is indeed making change”. The use of the metaphor and comparison of colonization and oppression are distinct, and not the same. By using colonization as a metaphor for the oppression we conveniently bypass the question of “What is colonialism?”.

Conclusion

Something that I have struggled internally with is that is the idea of Treaty Education, and learning about Treaties, and the Treaty partnership further distracting from the idea of the rightful owners of the land? Does Treaty Education give us a harmonious view of Indigenous-settler relationships while bypassing the issue of land rights?

Week 6 Reflection: Supporting All Our Learners

Shelley Moore

This past week we had the opportunity to listen to Shelley Moore’s TED Talk, and her story about Daniel.

The message of the video emphasizes the importance of presuming competence within our students. We need to trust that our students are competent learners and that they can learn. The student that Shelley was sharing about in her TED talk was able to communicate by using the dictionary’s page numbers to show math competence by flipping through the dictionary to answer math flashcards.  As educators, we need to avoid the language and thoughts that a student is “Way too disabled” to learn.  That it is our job to find what works for the student and how they can demonstrate their learning.  As educators, it requires that we listen, and pay attention to our students. If not we become ignorant and too assuming if we believe that students cannot showcase their learning, we must get creative.

This was not the first time that I have been introduced to the knowledge of Shelley Moore.  A colleague sent me the video above a couple months ago, and I believe it tied in nicely to our conversation on lesson planning last week. “Dr. Baked Potato: How Can We Scaffold Complexity” highlights the importance of scaffolding and Universal Design for Learning and how to efficiently utilize our support teams for our students.  I have linked the Baked Potato Planning Pyramid that Shelley uses. She discusses the importance of the following goals. 

  1. Get to know the students and identify what supports they need to meet the goal.  This needs to be established before the lesson takes place.
  2. Make sure that all the students understand the most important part of the goal.  This needs to be tied to the concept of the lesson and not the activity of the lesson.
  3. Teach the different challenge options to ALL the students. This is called scaffolding complexity.
  4. Let ALL the students choose their level of challenge about how they meet the goal.

If we design our lessons this way we focus on what the students can complete rather than what they cannot complete.  This student-centered approach will allow students to take control of their own learning. 

Decolonizing Possibilities in Special Education

In Yee and Butler’s article, Decolonizing Possibilities in Special Education Services I thought that the research question of how to (re)imagine special education and inclusive education practices to address the needs of Indigenous students tied in with the Shelley Moore video and with culturally responsive pedagogy.  This article highlighted four themes to better support ALL our students.  

  1. Critical self-examination
  2. Holistic assessment measures
  3. The use of decolonizing teaching approaches,
  4. Decolonizing special education delivery service models.

Looking at themes three and four, the article highlights that using a strength-based approach and building relationships provides successful opportunities for our students. By building off student interests provides allows students to engage in learning that is relevant to themselves. Universal Design for Learning or a model such as Shelley Moore’s Baked Potato Planning Pyramid provides students autonomy and allows students to oversee their own learning. Furthermore, the article highlights the significance of relationships as a way to decolonize special education delivery service models.  Relationships with the community, schools, families, and agencies work to support all students. I believe that these relationships honour the different ways of knowing that Indigenous communities bring and work in partnership with western ideologies. Through a combination of mutual respect and relationships can we begin to honour to goals and successes of Indigenous students and all our students.

Week 5 Reflection: Gender and Sexual Diversity

Since our last class, we had the opportunity to attend a gender and sexual diversity workshop put on by URpride called “Building Positive Spaces for Gender and Sexually Diverse Students.”  As a cisgender, straight male, I have not experienced oppression based on my gender and sexual orientation.  However, teaching and growing up in rural Saskatchewan, I have witnessed gender and sexuality oppression.  Much of the oppression that I have seen in schools revolves around the lack of education on GSD. This includes improper terminology and the use of slurs often by male students as a form of toxic masculinity. I reflect on one experience regarding diverse books purchased for our schools on the topic of GSD. For the fear, of what I presume, of parent backlash, the school was reluctant to put the books on the shelf. This situation brings to light the resources we use and how we privilege the mainstream, the status quo, and continue to oppress those who do not align with the status quo. 

As an ally there are steps that we can take regarding supporting members of the LGBTQ+ community.

Including:

  1. Respect people’s privacy.
  2. Respect people’s identities.
  3. Use proper names and pronouns.
  4. Stand up for gender and sexually diverse youth and colleagues.
  5. Be visible in your solidarity.
  6. Value, respect, and push for gender-neutral environments.

I believe these six steps are not strenuous things to accomplish.  As educators, we have a responsibility to support and provide safe spaces for ALL our students. As Meg discussed by not discussing gender and sexual diversity in the classroom it then becomes part of the hidden curriculum.  When this happens, we are privileging the dominant narratives. 

As a former elementary school teacher, one thing that I made sure of is to ensure that I had a diverse classroom library collection that featured voices from oppressed and marginalized groups.  I continue to choose books for our school division’s online library that represent these voices. However, I believe more needs to be done to ensure there are safe spaces for our students.  This includes mandatory training for teachers on a workshop like “Building Positive Spaces for Gender and Sexually Diverse Students” and a willingness to have open conversations and dialogue on welcoming and supporting all students.

Week 4: Gender Inclusivity

This week the articles read were Welcoming Gender Diversity in the Early Years by Timmons and Airton, Can We Learn Queerly?: Normativity and Social Justice Pedagogies by Loutzenheiser, and lastly the section on The Gender Politics of Curriculum Reform by Pinar.

Reading the work of Timmons and Airton highlighted the responsibility that early childhood educators have regarding providing an environment free of gender identity and gender expression discrimination. It addresses the guiding documents in Ontario ELEC, Early Learning for Every Child Today, and HDLH, How Does Learning Happen? Ontario’s Pedagogy for the Early Years. I thought that it was interesting that the articles did not address childhood gender diversity directly. I began to question what resources that Saskatchewan has in regards to gender diversity. Saskatchewan Ministry of Education in 2015 had created the Deepening the Discussion Gender and Sexual Diversity, a document developed to “support individuals and communities to engage in meaningful discussions and actions to respond to the experiences, perspectives and needs of students and families who are gender and/or sexually diverse” (Saskatchewan Ministry of Education, 2015, p 1). However, with these documents both in Saskatchewan and Ontario, we need to ensure that teachers know these documents and provide support for implementing gender-diverse and gender-expansive practices into the classrooms. We need to work towards what Loutzenheiser states, “uncover and analyze how the classroom is already sexualized, heterosexualized, and racialized” (p. 135).

This article provides excellent suggestions that I believe ALL educators should refer back to for gender-expansive teaching practices. Timmons and Airton suggest:

  • Provide accurate information.
  • “Go with it” when children are exploring gender in playful ways.
  • Affirm children’s gender identities and gender expression.
  • Find teachable moments.
  • Examine material through a gender-expansive lens.

Loutzenheiser analyzed tolerance, how tolerance reinforces the dominant norm and can only exist if there is another (p 123). Further, tolerance continues to center the dominant narrative and promotes a utopian view of society resulting in “sweeping otherness under the carpet” and providing a good society view.

A Look at Gender Politics and Curriculum Reform

Pinar addresses some interesting points regarding gender and physical activity in the height of the Cold War. This section of the textbook, discussed is a physical fitness program put in place by the Kennedy administration. This program promoted physical activity and the need to have “hard” American boys, as there was growing concern that the American population was becoming too soft. However, Pinar highlights that this program was directed towards the white male, as the concern was around manhood. However, black males and the stereotype of aggressively were considered “hard” enough. There was great concern for the feminization of boys in the Cold War era. Even Batman and Robin were said to pose a threat to masculinity.
I would like to assume that this Kennedy-inspired mindset rapidly spread across western countries and continues to play out in the lack of gender-diversity that we see in society and in our schools. The article highlighted the subtleness that gender roles and stereotypes are embedded within our society.

Week 3: World Travelling, Science as a Humanity, and Art and Culture

Playfulness, “World”-Travelling and Loving Perception

The article Playfulness, “World”-Travelling and Loving Perception by Lugones discusses the importance of cross-cultural and cross-racial loving. I will be honest this article took me a lot to get through.  I often found myself going back and rereading parts to try to understand exactly what the author was addressing.  The paper addresses the experience of “outsiders” to mainstream society.  Lugones, highlights that women need to “learn to love each other by learning to travel to each other’s ‘worlds'” (1987, p. 4).  It is important to identify with people by travelling to each other’s worlds.

To me, the article highlights the racial differences among women in our mainstream society and the importance for women to see themselves in other women.  However, Lugones highlights the cases of White/Anglo women who are not able to see the “loving perception” of other non-White/Anglo women and continue to be complacent. This is an area that needs addressing as we move towards racial equality.  The concept of world-travelling emphasizes the importance of empathy and beyond. It requires truly understanding from another worldview.

Legitimating Lived Curriculum: Toward a Curricular Landscape of Multiplicity

The chapter Legitimating Lived Curriculum: Toward a Curricular Landscape of Multiplicity, by Aoki highlighted something of interest to me.  “Science must be taught as a humanity” (Aoki, 2005, p. 199).  This came as a response to a report of highschool graduates and the dropout rate of these students in science programs.  What needs to be done is to disturb the landscape, listen to the reasons why students are dropping out of graduate-level science programs. In Aoki’s conclusion, they state,

Curriculum developers and curriculum supervisors should head thoughtful practicing teachers who already seem to know that the privileging of the traditional C & I landscape that offers possibilities by, in part, giving legitimacy to the wisdom held in live stories of people who dwell within the landscape. (Aokim 2005, p. 214).

This quote puts teachers in the position to use their understanding of the curriculum, and dwell between the curriculum to address the needs of the students and finding appropriate ways to engage them in the content. By including the humanities in STEM fields teachers are able to address important issues facing education, such as democracy, and citizenship.  This article ties in nicely with the next chapter on the Harlem Renaissance.

Chapter 3: The Harlem Renaissance

This chapter highlights the need for creative action and ties in with the previous article by Aoki.  The chapter highlights the Harlem Renaissance including African-American intellectuals and artists that used art and culture as a form of cultural revolution.  The chapter ties in from the previous chapter and discusses the enemy of democracy, “the habit of fixed and numerically limited classifications that are ‘quantitative’ and ‘comparative'” (Pinar, 2020, p. 39). Tying this into the commodification and economization of education, where corporations and big business continue to exploit education. However, for there to be change we must address the power relations that reside in education that allow it to stay status quo. There was a powerful quote comparing the teacher’s role to change in education to a midwife. “We teachers can – subtly, indirectly, over generations – midwife a cultural renaissance. That is the progressive project of public education” (Pinar, 2020, p. 41). In the work of Du Bois, the cosmopolitan culture was to create a raceless society without erasing the historical experience of racism that unites all Black and colonized peoples.  In addition, Locke advocated for a community in which peoples of colour could enter into conversations about colonialism and White supremacy. From a K-12 education perspective, I believe that this model of a classroom provides opportunities for culturally relevant pedagogy, and safe spaces to have these conversations with students.

In addition, the article addresses the tension between STEM and the liberal arts. This tension is an interesting dynamic that of chapter authors argue the quantitative nature of STEM fields does not address the humanities and arts central to learning. In the end, Western society is privileging STEM thinking,  as compared to the arts and humanities.  As a result in education, we see politicians and profiteers benefitting from education, and driving policy and the curriculum, leaving behind teachers’ input into these crucial areas.